During our last wintertrip to Turkey we could marvel once more on the rich amphibian fauna of the Lycian coast. Reptiles however were in shorter supply due to the winter conditions. We immediately started dreaming of visiting Turkey in spring time, which would allow us to see more reptiles in the peak of their breeding season. Our gaze was set east where the diversity is even higher, and where several endemic vipers can be found high in the mountains. I made a list of target species, set an ambitious route and we booked our flights accordingly.
Some weeks before our departure to Turkey the conditions in the mountains were very unfavourable with snow still falling in early April and temperatures below zero. It seems to have been an exceptionally cold winter in this part of the world. Luckily the temperatures were rising three weeks before our visit and we were getting more optimistic about finding our target species. This was however a double-edged sword. After the cold winter the weather made a complete turnaround and during our first week in Turkey we had very hot and dry conditions. This meant we had to get up early to have a chance of seeing our desiderata. The second week in Turkey we were further inland and winter had returned there, with temperatures in the single digits and fresh snow falling. Despite these odds we had a highly motivated team consisting of Sander, Rick, Laura and myself, and with determination we managed to find almost all our target species.
All images © Laura & Bobby Bok (unless stated otherwise)
22nd of April 2022
Sander and I flew from Amsterdam to Antalya where Laura had already arrived from Munich. Sadly our flight was delayed because of the big mess Schiphol airport is, but considering the delays of all other flights the next days we were pretty lucky. In the evening Laura picked us up, we dropped our luggage at the hotel and went for a quick meal in the city. We knew finding Lycian Salamanders in late April would be a long shot but we still decided to give it a try. It was hot, dry and dusty but Sander and I still found a Lycian Salamander (Lyciasalamandra antalyana x billae) out on the crawl. Amazing to see how hardy these animals are. We also found a Common Toad (Bufo bufo), Levant Water Frogs (Pelophylax bedriagae) and some big Rock Scorpions (Iurus kraepelini). Back at the hotel it was already well past midnight but the sand dunes across the road looked very tempting. Surpringly it took quite some time but in the end Laura found a beautiful adult Mediterranean Chameleon (Chamaeleo chamaeleon). Somewhere around 03:00am it was off to bed.
23rd of April 2022
Before breakfast we had a small stroll through the dunes and found the Mediterranean Chameleon back. We also found our first Spur-thighed Tortoise (Testudo graeca), Anatolian Worm Lizard (Blanus strauchi) and Bridled Skink (Heremites vittatus). After collecting a sleep-deprived Rick from the airport we drove north to check out some promising salamander habitat. This quickly turned out a bit too optimistic but we did see our first Starred Agamas (Laudakia stellio daani), shy and secretive Pamphylian Green Lizards (Lacerta pamphylica) and Laura found a massive Grass Snake (Natrix natrix). At the second search stop it was hot and sultry weather and around the shores of a big lake we found Spur-thighed Tortoise, Pamphylian Green Lizard, Anatolian Worm Lizard, Budak's Snake-eyed Skink (Ablepharus budaki), Dice Snake (Natrix tessellata) and our main target for this area: Anatolian Water Frogs (Pelophylax caralitanus) in ample supply. After a very tasty dinner in Eğirdir we drove back to the lake to admire some more frogs and also found European Pond Terrapin (Emys orbicularis). Late at night we arrived at our accommodation a bit further west.
24th of April 2022
Our hosts prepared a luxuriant breakfast after which we were ready for the day. The ruined city of Sagalassos was on the menu for the morning. We were the first to enter the old Pisidian city and could absorb the magical feel to this desolate place at 1500m absl. At the nymphaeum there is a huge waterbassin with a fountain that works again, just like it would in ancient times. The overflow of this bassin produces some interesting breeding water for Green Toads (Bufotes viridis) and several couples were in amplexus in the freezing water. We also saw Starred Agama, Budak's Snake-eyed Skink, Anatolian Worm Lizard, Ibrahim's Rock Lizard (Anatololacerta ibrahimi), a very shy Eastern Balkan Green Lizard (Lacerta diplochondrodes) and many Spur-thighed Tortoises. During the hottest part of the day we drove south to reach Manavgat in the late afternoon. In winter we weren't successful in finding African Softshell Turtles (Trionyx triunguis) at this location, but now we saw three individuals basking in the shallow water along with many Starred Agamas along the shore. Nearby coastal sand dunes delivered Snake-eyed Lacertids (Ophisops elegans macrodactylus), Starred Agamas, Turkish Gecko (Hemidactylus turcicus) and an Eastern Montpellier Snake (Malpolon insignitus) crossing the road. From last trip we knew that at Firincibaba we would find another excellent meal and it didn't disappoint. Back at the sand dunes we visited the amazing temporary ponds we knew from a few months back. This time there was only a residual amount of water since all the surrounding agricultural fields are using this water for irrigation. Amphibians here don't stand a chance and as a result we only saw Levant Water Frog, Turkish Gecko and another Mediterranean Chameleon.
25th of April 2022
Luckily Firincibaba opened very early so we grabbed a quick bite to eat and went to a nearby ruined city. Here we saw many Spur-thighed Tortoises, Starred Agamas, Glass Lizards (Pseudopus apodus), Hatay Lizards (Phoenicolacerta laevis), Bridled Skinks, Golden Skinks (Heremites auratus) and Black Whip Snakes (Dolichophis jugularis). Between the latter two species I observed some interesting behaviour as one subadult whip snake was hunting for skinks. The Golden Skink that was quite confiding before, was highly startled after its encounter with the snake. Fairly logical in a way... After the ruined city we tried two spots for Pamphylian Green Lizards. At the first only Balkan Terrapins (Mauremys rivulata) and Bridled Skinks but at the second we got more lucky. Between the many Hatay Lizards we also saw two beautiful male Pamphylian Green Lizards but we weren't quick enough for a photo. We waited for an hour in the hope they would show up again, but I only found another Mediterranean Chameleon in the process. Higher up in the mountains we had a look at some habitat for a special viper but weren't so smitten by the overgrazed habitat and only found a single Ibrahim's Rock Lizard. Shortly after sunset we arrived at the accommodation, grabbed a quick bite to eat and with Eastern Tree Frogs (Hyla orientalis) calling outside, we went to sleep.
26th of April 2022
With the nearby viper habitat of the previous day being not the best, we had a bit of a drive waiting for us. So we got up before sunrise and drove to a beautiful valley at 1800m absl. Luckily snow only blocked the last 100 meters of the road so we got right in the middle of some great habitat. Our target for today was tiny and despite many scrutinous searches in suitable habitat we couldn't find it. The snow hasn't been gone for long though and vegetation only just started to grow. We started to doubt if our timing was maybe a bit too early after all? We searched long and only saw some shy Ibrahim's Rock Lizards so we decided to take a break. Rick was about to run back to the car to get some sunscreen, when he heard a tiny snake moving through a shrub. A viper! So exciting to finally lay eyes on an Anatolian Meadow Viper (Vipera anatolica)! After photography and playing in the snow for a bit we drove back into town, got some better food than the previous night and went to our appointment for the evening program. Because seeing a very rare Western Palearctic reptile was not enough - we also wanted to try and find one of the rarest WP birds. We had help of the best guide for this particular species and Özcan Kiliç agreed to meet us. This bird was another species that wasn't easy, we scanned the riverbanks and surrounding trees for hours. But shortly to midnight - there it was: a Brown Fish Owl (Ketupa zeylonensis) sitting in a tree calmly staring back at us. What a day with these two rare species and very happy we fell asleep in the hotel, with Giant Emperor Moths (Saturnia pyri) fluttering against the windows of our bedroom.
27th of April 2022
After breakfast under the rising sun on the terrace of our accommodation, we packed the car and drove on. With our ambitious schedule we didn't have so much time, but we visited some excellent viper habitat nearby to try and find Ottoman Viper before our long drive east started. We saw several species such as Spur-thighed Tortoises in huge densities, Ibrahim's Rock Lizard, Starred Agama, Snake-eyed Lacertid (Ophisops elegans basoglui), Cilician Worm Lizard (Blanus aporus) and several Dahl's Whip Snake (Platyceps najadum) which all were a bit too quick for us. The drive east was much smoother than we anticipated. Along the road we did a stop in some excellent steppe habitat of rolling hills with isolated Juniperus bushes. Here we saw the usual suspects such as Spur-thighed Tortoise, Starred Agama, Chernov's Snake-eyed Skink (Ablepharus chernovi), Dahls Whip Snake and Worm Snake (Xerotyphlops vermicularis). With the sun getting low my eye caught a big snake laying half outside a bush. I couldn't believe my eyes as this was a species that eluded me for quite some time. A big and beautiful Blotched Snake (Elaphe sauromates)! Naturally, we were all ecstatic with the find. In the early evening we found some tasty food in a rustic Lokantasi and met with Nadir, our host for the next three nights. In his garden there are many "Komodo dragons" as he calls them and that is exactly what we wanted to see here. Despite the lack of rain there were some massive Geelvlekbanjers (Salamandra infraimmaculata orientalis) foraging. We immediately fell in love with this place!
28th of April 2022
Getting up before sunrise is never easy unless there are vipers on the menu. We had breakfast in the car with dildo bars and evergy drink and arrived on site at the perfect time. Lizards such as Chernov's Snake-eyed Skinks, Starred Agamas and Danford's Rock Lizards (Anatololacerta danfordi) were out basking and we even saw some Eastern Thin-toed Geckos (Mediodactylus orientalis). Still our main target eluded us. In this time of year the vipers are still very much concentrated around their hibernacula and are not so spread out over the terrain yet. So we had to make meters and hope to get lucky. After awhile Sander heard a snake crawl away and we decided to wait there for a bit. This was a good strategy. When I checked out that spot I again heard a snake slither away, but I also spotted a tiny section of the body of a second viper. Although still a bit dirty from hibernation, we were very happy to see a Mount Bulgar Viper (Montivipera bulgardaghica)! Another Dahls Whip Snake escaped before we moved on to another place.
The hot afternoon we spent in a nearby gorge where Sander again worked his magic and found a juvenile Black Whip Snake and a juvenile Common Dwarf Snake (Eirenis modestus). We also marked some ponds to check our after sunset and had dinner again at the nice Lokantasi from the night before. Across the street I had a nice shave at a Kuaforu to look fresh for some of my favourite amphibians we would search for that night. Sadly the Banded Newts were nowhere to be seen, and we don't even know if they really occur there. Luckily Lemon-yellow Tree Frogs (Hyla savignyi) made up for the lack of newts and we also saw Levant Water Frogs, Green Toads, a nocturnal Levant Green Lizard (Lacerta media) and a White-breasted Hedgehog (Erinaceus concolor). We also met some local people with surprising good knowledge on the local fauna and they hinted us towards some really nice fire salamander habitat. They certainly know these animals judging by their description, although sadly we didn't see any. Nor did we see newts but the locals also said they don't recognize this animal. A very big Common Toad was the final sight of the day before it was off to bed.
29th of April 2022
We allowed ourselves a bit more time today but we were on the mountain slopes well on time. We largely saw the same species as the previous day and again it was Sander who found another individual of a Mount Bulgar Viper basking. This individual was dirty from hibernation and in deep shed so we didn't stay around for long. On slopes a bit further into the valley we searched a bit, but the blasting cold wind wasn't really enjoyable so we moved to a lower elevation and in another valley. Here we found some excellent fire salamander habitat which we decided to check out in the evening. A beautiful male Levant Green Lizard (Lacerta media ciliciensis), with the typical blue flanks of this subspecies, was a big highlight to an otherwise slow day. The remaining hours of sun were spent relaxing at an awesome stream close to our accommodation. Infinity pools and waterfalls with crystal clear waters were very enjoyable. At our favourite Lokantasi we were again greeted with a big smile by the chef, and after plenty of Adana Kebab and Lahmacun we hit the field. We immediately saw many Levant Water Frog, Eastern Thin-toed Gecko and larvae of Geelvlekbanjers but sadly no adults. Luckily the garden of our host had plenty of dragons running around again.
30th of April 2022
We had a long drive ahead of us again so we woke up early. In the lowlands around Adana we had a stop at a rocky hill surrounded by endless seas of agricultural wasteland. Here some pretty promising reptile habitat was waiting for us and we quickly found Green Toads, Spur-thighed Tortoise, Starred Agama (Laudakia stellio stellio), Eastern Thin-toed Gecko, Black Whip Snake and Levant Dwarf Snake (Eirenis levantinus). When we were about to leave there came a shout from Sander who was searching on a steep slope. He had spotted a big Blunt-nosed Viper (Macrovipera lebetinus) laying in ambush! Within seconds we were all besides him admiring this beautiful snake perched on a rock, laying in wait for passing birds. After photographing the viper, I sat down on a rock next to a big bush when I heard a big snake slowly make its way through the undergrowth. Upon inspection I indeed found out it was a big snake and a 1,5m long Blunt-nosed Viper showed itself. What an impressive beast, and not a bad result for a small stop on our drive east! At a nearby crusaders castle we enjoyed the scenery before it was time to move on.
In the late afternoon we arrived at Göksün where we scouted for some suitable habitat for our evening targets. After dropping the luggage at the hotel we grabbed a burger in the only restaurant in town that was open. In the evening we tried to find a subspecies of the Levant Water Frog (Pelophylax bedriagae ciliciensis) that might warrant species status in the future. The first few spots didn't yield any frogs but luckily Laura's keen eyes spotted two frogs in a filthy canal at our final attempt.
1st of May 2022
South of Göksün we drove into the mountains to search for our next viper target. The habitat looked excellent for the Central Turkish Mountain Viper and the weather started of pretty good. But before we could reach the really good habitat the weather turned sour. While making our way up the slopes, thick rain clouds came rolling in and the loudest thunder imaginable started to strike very close by. We all scrambled to find some shelter and were lucky to find some overhanging cliff to wait out the worst of the storm. When the thunder became distant and the rain gradually less, we started to make our descent. Sadly no viper but we did see Lemon-yellow Tree Frog, Green Toad, Spur-thighed Tortoise, Golden Skink, Starred Agama, Anatolian Lizard (Apathya cappadocica), Dahls Whip Snake, Black Whip Snake and Worm Snake. In a town nearby we allowed ourselves some warm lunch and the typical Maras Dondurmasi icecream. We explored nearby waterfalls and a cave and when the weather got slightly better we drove back to the valley where we searched in the morning. This time no reptiles were out due to the drop in temperature, but we had some excellent views of a breeding pair of White-throated Robin (Irania gutturalis). Then it was time to move on again, driving further south to reach our new accommodation shortly after sunset. After a huge and tasty meal we set out to find new spots for Oriental Fire Salamanders. With little effort we found a nice stream with both this species and Levant Water Frog. Back at the lodge there were salamanders walking around on both the access road and behind our cabin making it another successful evening of herping.
2nd of May 2022
Against our expectations, we woke up to weather that wasn't as crappy as we expected. We got our hopes up to find that viper now. We drove up to a beautiful meadow higher up in the mountains and with every turn expected to see a viper basking. It wasn't meant to be. We did see Green Toad, Lemon-yellow Tree Frog, Spur-thighed Tortoise, Starred Agama, Bridled Skink, Chernov's Snake-eyed Skink, Levant Green Lizard, Hatay Lizard, Anatolian Lizard and Common Dwarf Snake. Having searched every nook and cranny we decided to go to a spot closeby to try our luck there. Again some amazing habitat and even some pretty good sultry weather, but we only found Spur-thighed Tortoise, Bridled Skink and Hatay Lizard in huge numbers, Worm Snake and I spotted a Black Whip Snake and Dahls Whip Snake basking. Without having seen the viper we drove further east towards Malatya where we would arrive in the evening. We found a nice hotel and some nice roadside dinner. Much to our disappointment the swinging ship at the local funfair was closed so we went for an early night.
3rd of May 2022
With a view over the urban sprawl that is Malatya we had breakfast. It had rained during the night and although it was still overcast in the morning, there was no more rain coming down. We drove south and made a first stop in a valley with a small stream running through. We barely got out of the car and we already spotted the first Spikkelspetters (Neurergus barani). Amazing to see these brightly coloured gems in the crystal water, not caring about anything else than reproduction and sitting out in the broad daylight. Also the densities of these animals are just amazing and seeing groups of 20 newts together were a common sight. When the sun slowly started to come out, the newts went into hiding a bit more but lizards such as Snake-eyed Lacertid and Levant Green Lizard started to bask. We drove on to one of the most spectacular sights in this part of the world. The peak of Nemrut Daği is around 2130m absl and towers high above the surrounding landscape. On the top there is a massive tumulus raised over the alledged tomb of Antiochus I, who reigned over a kingdom that was founded after the breakup of the empire of Alexander the Great. Around the royal tomb there are several huge statues of Antiochus I himself as well as several Greek and Iranian deities. Sadly the statues have lost their heads due to either earthquakes or vandalism but the site remains impressive all the same. In the last rays of sunlight we searched on the slopes lower down. Sadly the rains caught up with us but Sander and I continued searching and found quite a few species such as Golden Skink, Alexander's Worm Lizard (Blanus alexandri), Worm Snake, Eiselt's Dwarf Snake (Eirenis eiselti) and Dotted Dwarf Snake (Eirenis punctatolineatus). Again not a bad result for a random stop and while the sun was setting we drove to our accommodation in Eskikahta. Our host Mehmet was already waiting for us and prepared an amazing dinner. With the bathroom smelling like a zoo we could go for an early night.
4th of May 2022
The sun was out so we had good hopes of finding some new reptiles to the list. In the morning we visited a big Roman Bridge where we observed Anatolian Lizard. Along the road we decided to visit good looking habitat to see what we could turn up and make use of the sunny spell. We were all dreading that the rain would return any time. During our first stop we found more Anatolian Lizard, Starred Agama, Levant Green Lizard and I found a 2 meter long Black Whip Snake. At a second stop we found Bridled Skink, Anatolian Lizard, Levant Green Lizard, Alexander's Worm Lizard, Worm Snake and Eiselt's Dwarf Snake. All the time during our drive back to Malatya, the clouds kept rolling in from the south and we managed to escape them so far. During our third stop of the day we managed to find Levant Water Frog, Chernov's Snake-eyed Skink, Bridled Skink, Levant Green Lizard, Dice Snake, Worm Snake and I found a small Reddish Whip Snake (Platyceps collaris) just before the heavens opened. Rain and hail came beating down, deafening thunder struck and we had to seek shelter. No more chance of finding the much hoped for Palestine Kukri Snake or Central Turkish Mountain Viper, but the little Reddish Whip Snake was also a big highlight for us. In the evening we arrived in Malatya where we met with Kseniia Prondzynska who lives in Turkey as a translator. During dinner something magical happened. Rick has been ordering ice tea for the whole trip and always got fanta. But now he finally got ice tea! Although he ordered fanta....
After dinner we drove into the mountains to check on the stream with the Spikkelspetters to see what they were doing after the torrential downpour. The crystal clears water of their habitat had turned brown from the sediment, and the now fast flowing stream became uninhabitable for the newts. Not surprisingly the newts left the water. They were walking on the path next to the stream and were numbering in the hundreds, alongside many big freshwater crabs.
5th of May 2022
With another grim weather forecast, we were not so optimistic about today. Luckily the weather turned out to be better than expected. Although it was heavily overcast, we didn't get anymore rain in the morning and it was not so cold. A bit north of Malatya we searched in some amazing steppe habitat. It was of course overgrazed like every bit of nature in Turkey, but still in quite good shape. With colourful hills rising up around us we started to make our way into a beautiful valley. It didn't take us long to find several species here such as Green Toad, Snake-eyed Lacertid, Schneider's Skink (Eumeces schneideri) and Worm Snake. Moments later even our main target turned up and we found several Ilgaz's Fringe-toed Lizards (Acanthodactylus ilgazi). This species was described as recently as 2021. As an added bonus Kseniia found a beautiful little Cat Snake (Telescopus fallax) and Rick found a Baluch Ground Agama (Trapelus ruderatus). A very successful morning with all target species for this area achieved. The rains did however return in the afternoon and we allowed ourselves some warm lunch before driving further north. We arrived there with some daylight left to explore a bit and we found some promising looking habitat for our next target species. We had dinner in town after which we set out into the windy and rainy night. It didn't take us long to find many Oriental Fire Salamanders (Salamandra infraimmaculata semenovi), including some very big individuals and animals with strange looking patterns. Finally the rain was good for something!
6th of May 2022
Another overcast day but after breakfast we could observe Bearded Vultures (Gypaetus barbatus) and Monk Vultures (Aegypius monachus) from the balcony which was really cool. The rest of the day was spent trying to find our remaining viper target but with the weather conditions we didn't stand a chance. Fresh snow had fallen the previous night, so there was little else to do than have a snowball fight. In the afternoon we drove to another spot across the Euphrates where we found a good spot to throw our galia melon of a cliff. We had dinner in town after which we again set out to find Oriental Fire Salamanders of which we found several.
7th/8th of May 2022
The weather was slightly better than the previous day so we searched for vipers in some good looking habitat we found the previous day. Although there was sun all around us, wherever we were searching there were clouds and we didn't have much luck. We found Starred Agama, Snake-eyed Lacertid, Worm Snake and another Black Whip Snake but little else. We decided to try our luck elsewhere and drove towards Sivas, our final destination of this trip. Along the road we saw some amazing habitat. The shepherd we met there also confirmed the presence of vipers at this locality, as he was able to describe them quite well. The remaining hours of daylight we searched here and despite a cold wind we saw Starred Agama, Golden Skink and Common Dwarf Snake but the viper eluded us once more. In Sivas we dropped Kseniia of near the bus stop, dropped the luggage at our hotel and got some dinner. While driving into town we saw another swinging ship so we decided to check it out. This time it was open until late and we were greeted by some very friendly people who let us ride the ship for free. Such luck! Everybody loved the swinging ship also so much that once was enough. Only I went for another round as I wasn't sure I was terrified or excited as this thing went a bit higher than they do in Western Europe... Afterwards Rick and I had an appointment in the city to bring a plan into fruition we made during the last trip to Turkey. Now we both have an African Softhell Turtle always with us! The next day we flew from Sivas to Istanbul and from there back home after an amazing trip.
Once more, Turkey did not disappoint and a plan to revisit this vast and beautiful country is already in the making. During our trip we visited ancient Greek cities perched on high mountain plateaus to Crusaders Castles in the sultry lowlands, from seemingly endless steppes to mighty mountains with raging torrents. The people were friendly and hospitable and whenever people asked what we were doing at night, they always offered tea or coffee or helped us in our search. The food was again plenty and tasty and the traveling straight forward and easy. Our route was rather ambitious with many targets high in the mountains and many kilometers. We got incredibly lucky with good reptile weather during the first half of the trip, but the latter half was more suited for salamanders. In general our timing was rather early in the year. Snow had just melted and in many places the vegetation had just started to grow again. But having missed only one real herping target and seeing so many others it is hard to complain. The driving was remarkably easy as the Turkish roads are in general in excellent shape and even the unpaved roads in the mountains are more than fine. We easily got many kilometers under our belt and whenever we were fed up with driving, there was always some interesting habitat around to quickly check out.
For more pictures from our trip - have a look at Laura's Flickr Album.
Lycian Salamander (Lyciasalamandra antalyana x billae)
Oriental Fire Salamander (Salamandra infraimmaculata orientalis & semenovi)
Baran's Anatolian Newt (Neurergus barani)
Common Toad (Bufo bufo)
Green Toad (Bufotes viridis)
Eastern Tree Frog (Hyla orientalis) calling
Lemon-yellow Tree Frog (Hyla savignyi)
Levant Water Frog (Pelophylax bedriagae bedriagae & ciliciensis)
Anatolian Water Frog (Pelophylax caralitanus)
European Pond Terrapin (Emys orbicularis)
Balkan Terrapin (Mauremys rivulata)
African Softshell Turtle (Trionyx triunguis)
Spur-thighed Tortoise (Testudo graeca ibera)
Glass Lizard (Pseudopus apodus thracius)
Mediterranean Chameleon (Chamaeleo chamaeleon recticrista)
Turkish Gecko (Hemidactylus turcicus)
Eastern Thin-toed Gecko (Mediodactylus orientalis)
Starred Agama (Laudakia stellio stellio & daani)
Baluch Ground Agama (Trapelus ruderatus)
Budak's Snake-eyed Skink (Ablepharus budaki)
Chernov's Snake-eyed Skink (Ablepharus chernovi chernovi & eiselti)
Schneider's Skink (Eumeces schneideri)
Golden Skink (Heremites auratus)
Bridled Skink (Heremites vittatus)
Ilgaz's Fringe-toed Lizard (Acanthodactylus ilgazi)
Danford's Rock Lizard (Anatololacerta danfordi)
Ibrahim's Rock Lizard (Anatololacerta ibrahimi)
Anatolian Lizard (Apathya cappadocica)
Eastern Balkan Green Lizard (Lacerta diplochondrodes cariensis)
Levant Green Lizard (Lacerta media ciliciensis)
Pamphylian Green Lizard (Lacerta pamphylica)
Snake-eyed Lacertid (Ophisops elegans macrodactylus, basoglui & centralanatoliae)
Hatay Lizard (Phoenicolacerta laevis)
Alexander's Worm Lizard (Blanus alexandri)
Cilician Worm Lizard (Blanus aporus)
Anatolian Worm Lizard (Blanus strauchi)
Worm Snake (Xerotyphlops vermicularis)
Black Whip Snake (Dolichophis jugularis)
Eiselt's Dwarf Snake (Eirenis eiselti)
Levant Dwarf Snake (Eirenis levantinus)
Common Dwarf Snake (Eirenis modestus)
Dotted Dwarf Snake (Eirenis punctatolineatus)
Blotched Snake (Elaphe sauromates)
Reddish Whip Snake (Platyceps collaris)
Dahl's Whip Snake (Platyceps najadum)
Cat Snake (Telescopus fallax)
Eastern Montpellier Snake (Malpolon insignitus)
Grass Snake (Natrix natrix persa)
Dice Snake (Natrix tessellata)
Blunt-nosed Viper (Macrovipera lebetinus obtusa)
Mount Bulgar Viper (Montivipera bulgardaghica)
Anatolian Meadow Viper (Vipera anatolica senliki)
Many thanks to Wouter Beukema, Sergé Bogaerts, Michaël Corboz, Guillaume Gomard, Konrad Mebert, Joachim Nerz & Gert Jan Verspui.